[Part 3/3] Cubism: The Perfect Triangle

In 1913, the poet Guillaume Apollinaire dedicated his work The Cubist Painters to Cubism, thereby helping the movement attain broad renown. Painters like Jean Metzinger and Albert Gleizes made impressive contributions to the Cubist language of shapes. In 1912 one of the most famous paintings of the 20th century was created: the Nude Descending a Staircase (No. 2) by Marcel Duchamp. Aided by the Cubist vocabulary of shapes and his familiarity with Étienne-Jules Marey’s photos depicting movement, Duchamp painted a picture that moved the world. Five moments of the movement of one person, descending a spiral staircase, are captured in time-lapsed sequence, showing all the reciprocal movements triggered by her walking.

Marcel Duchamp. Nude Descending a Staircase, No. 2, 1912. Oil on canvas, 147 cm × 89.2 cm. Philadelphia Museum of Art , Philadelphia

In doing this, Duchamp introduced time as the fourth dimension in the painting. Though this nude triggered a scandal at the famous 1913 Armory Show in New York, some recognized the innovative character of this new work, calling it “the light at the end of the tunnel”. Duchamp, brother of the painter Jacques Villon, the sculptor Raymond Duchamp-Villon and the painter Suzanne Duchamp, was anything but a consistent worker. His unruly soul quickly led him to experiment with different media and eclectic ideas that shocked the art world. In New York, he became friends with Francis Picabia, with whom he became responsible for Dada.

Simultaneity is the lyric expression of the modern view of life; it signifies the rapidity and the concurrence of all existence and action. In doing this, Duchamp introduced time as the fourth dimension in the painting. Though this nude triggered a scandal at the famous 1913 Armory Show in New York, some recognized the innovative character of this new work, calling it “the light at the end of the tunnel”. Duchamp, brother of the painter Jacques Villon, the sculptor Raymond Duchamp-Villon and the painter Suzanne Duchamp, was anything but a consistent worker. His unruly soul quickly led him to experiment with different media and eclectic ideas that shocked the art world. In New York, he became friends with Francis Picabia, with whom he became responsible for Dada.

Marcel Duchamp. Bicycle Wheel, 1913. Metal wheel mounted on painted wood stool, 129.5 x 63.5 x 41.9 cm. Museum of Modern Art , New York

The Delaunays did not, like other artists, use this term to mean dynamism. They did not refer to the “élan vital” (“vital force”) as Bergson did, but rather to Chevreul’s theory of the law of simultaneous contrast. This theory, which dated from 1839 and had already played a role with the Impressionists, related colours and the relationship of objects to one another. Chevreul’s work was republished in 1890 and thus more present in the collective knowledge of artists. Sonia Delaunay, in her work Contrastes Simultanés (Simultaneous Contrasts) dared to jump directly into the abstract. Her painting was already a formal reference system of colour rhythms at a time when her husband Robert and artists Klee, Kandinsky, Mondrian and Picasso were still slowly making their way towards detaching themselves from objects.

Robert Delaunay founded Orphism, also known as Orphic Cubism. On account of the orchestration of colour, Guillaume Apollinaire named Delaunay’s painting style after Orpheus, the singer of Greek mythology. The origins of his painting style derived from Impressionism, Analytical Cubism and from Cézanne. The new landmark of Paris, the Eiffel Tower, built in 1898, fascinated him. Its elegant design became the subject of the Windows series. He painted it again and again, in new variations and refractions, using light and bright colour harmonies based on the colour values of light separated by a prism.

Robert DelaunaySimultaneous Windows on the City, 1912. Oil on canvas, 55.2 x 46.3 cm. Guggenheim Museum , New York

Guillaume Apollinaire observed: “That which differentiates Cubism from the old schools of painting is that it is not an art of painting, but an art of conception which tends to rise to that of creation. In representing the concept of reality, or the created reality, the painter can give the appearance of three dimensions, he can, so to speak, cube it. He cannot do this in rendering simply the reality as seen, unless he makes use of an illusion either in perspective or foreshortening which deforms the quality of the form conceived or created.

Juan Gris. Pack of Coffee, 1914. Gouache, 64.8 x 47 cm. Ulmer Museum , Ulm.

In Cubism , four tendencies have manifested themselves, of which two are parallel and pure. Scientific Cubism is one of the pure tendencies. It is the art of painting new ensembles with elements borrowed, not from the reality of vision, but from the reality of consciousness. Every man has the perception of this inner reality. It is not necessary, for example, to be a man of culture to conceive of a round form. The geometrical aspect which so vividly impressed those who saw the first scientific canvases came from the fact that the essential reality was given with great purity and that the visual accidents and anecdotes had been eliminated. He concluded: I love the art of today because above all else I love the light and all men love light—above all else Man invented fire”.

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Forensic Architecture: Towards an Investigative Aesthetics

Date: September 9th, 2017 – January 7th, 2018

Location: Museo Universitario Arte Contemporáneo

This exhibition presents the work of the architects, artists, filmmakers and investigative journalists who make up the Forensic Architecture agency at the Centre for Research Architecture at Goldsmiths, University of London, as well as that of its collaborators and guests. Established in 2010, Forensic Architecture uses architectural analysis, models and animations as investigative tools, primarily for the production and presentation of spatial evidence in the context of armed conflict and political struggles. This evidence is presented in political and legal contexts, including international courts, truth commissions, and human and environmental forums.

While exploring the development and transformation of the investigative practice that bears its name, the exhibition challenges us to consider how contemporary artistic practices and media technologies can be geared up to engage this reality of post-truth.

Exhibition co-produced by MACBA Museu d’Art Contemporani de Barcelona and MUAC, Museo Universitario Arte Contemporáneo, Mexico City.

For more info please visit http://muac.unam.mx/expo-detalle-131-forensic-architecture.-towards-an-investigative-aesthetics

日本武士刀

#全球展览资讯#展览推荐:《日本武士刀》。在一千年的历史长河中,日本武士一直以武士刀作为常用武器。武士刀传达了一种深厚的文化传统和美学价值,象征着威望和权力。在这场展览中,你将了解到武士刀的历史,与标志性意义的虚拟人物神交。时间:201817–2018109日。地点:王家铠甲博物馆,Address Slottsbacken 3, 111 30 Stockholm。了解更多:https://parkstone.international/2017/10/09/exhibition-katanas/

Amazonia: The Rights of Nature

Date: March 10, 2017 – January 28, 2018

Venue: Museum of Anthropology at UBC

The exhibition features Amazonian basketry, textiles, carvings, feather works and ceramics both of everyday and of ceremonial use, representing Indigenous, Maroon and white settler communities. Today, these groups confront threats caused by political violence, mining, oil and gas exploration, industrial agriculture, forest fires, and hydroelectric plants. Challenging visitors to examine their own notions towards holistic well-being, the exhibition covers more than 100 years of unsuspected relationships between Vancouver and Amazonian peoples, ideas, and their struggles.

The objects displayed in Amazonia: The collection’s items are primarily composed of simple, identifiable elements: vegetal fibers, wood, animal parts, clay, or feathers. These uncomplicated components are transformed into extremely sophisticated and intricate textiles, basketry, ceramics, feather works and jewelry, displaying the knowledge and craftsmanship of some of the groups who reside in the region. Taken in its entirety, the exhibition promises to offer a revealing window into one of the world’s more culturally, socially, and linguistically diverse regions, as well as a new framework for addressing some of the globe’s most pressing environmental challenges.

For more information please visit: http://moa.ubc.ca/portfolio_page/amazonia/

李小龙:功夫、艺术和生活

#全球展览资讯#展览推荐:《李小龙:功夫、艺术和生活》。如果你曾经是李小龙的粉丝,那么你绝对不应该错过香港的这场展览——李小龙:功夫、艺术和生活。展览展出了600多件与这位出生于旧金山的明星有关的物品。你会深刻地感受到,李小龙不仅是电影明星,不仅是武术家,更是一种文化现象。在新的视角下,观众能够更加深入地了解李小龙的成就和贡献,以及他在流行文化中的重要意义。本次展览由康乐及文化事务署主办,由李小龙基金会和香港文化博物馆共同组织,星空传媒赞助。时间:2013720-2018720日。地点:香港文化博物馆。了解更多:https://parkstone.international/2017/10/06/exhibition-bruce-lee-kung-fu-art-life/

Exposición: Paul Gauguin

Date: 11 October 2017 – 22 January 2018

Venue: Grand Palais Paris

PAUL GAUGUIN

Paul Gauguin muere el 8 de mayo de 1903, agotado por su inútil combate contra los funcionarios coloniales, vencido, desamparado, amenazado con una gran multa por haber incitado a los indígenas a la rebelión y haber calumniado a las autoridades locales, en completa soledad. Así acababa la vida del pintor que había dedicado su obra a glorificar la armonía original de la naturaleza generosa de Oceanía que lo había acogido. Los nombres que Gauguin había dado a su casa de Atuana y a los paneles de madera esculpida que la decoraban: “La casa del placer”, enamoraos y seréis felices, sed misteriosas resuenan con una ironía amarga. Sólo algunos nativos acompañaron a Gauguin hasta su última morada. No se pronunció ninguna oración fúnebre, ni siquiera una inscripción grabada en su tumba.

Efecto de nieve (La nieve, calle Carcel), 1882-1883, óleo sobre lienzo, 60 x 50 cm, Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek , Copenhague.

En el informe que enviaba regularmente a París, el obispo mencionaba: “No ha habido aquí nada más destacado que la muerte súbita de un triste personaje llamado Gauguin, artista de renombre, pero enemigo de Dios y de todo lo que es honesto”. El nombre de Gauguin no se grabó en la tumba hasta veinte años más tarde y su descubrimiento fue cuanto menos un acontecimiento original.

La playa de Dieppe, 1885, óleo sobre lienzo, 38 x 46 cm, Museo Nacional de Arte Occidental , Tokio.

En efecto, un artista miembro de la Society of American Fakirs encontró su tumba. Francia no rindió homenaje a su célebre ciudadano hasta pasados cincuenta años de su muerte, y se consiguió gracias a la iniciativa de Pierre Bompard, que había realizado los planos para un monumento y había participado en su erección. La presencia de ciertos aficionados al arte entre los viajeros y los colonos, así como la avidez de aquellos que habían denigrado al artista, pero a los que no les disgustaba enriquecerse a su costa, permitieron salvar parte de la herencia artística de Gauguin. De esta forma, el brigadier de Atuana, al regresar a Europa, abrió una especie de museo Gauguin que presentaba las obras que había requisado y escondido. De hecho, en Tahití no se encuentra ninguna de las producciones de Gauguin.

Ancianas en Arlés (En el jardín del hospital de Arlés), 1888, óleo sobre lienzo, 73 x 92 cm, Art Institute Chicago.

La noticia de la muerte de Gauguin llega a Francia cuatro meses más tarde. Su vida y su obra provocaron entonces un interés sin precedentes. Las palabras del pintor, así como las predicciones de Daniel de Monfreid, sobre un reconocimiento póstumo resultan proféticas: “Es de temer que su llegada estorbe un trabajo, una incubación que tiene lugar en la opinión pública en cuanto a usted, escribía Daniel de Monfreid a Gauguin meses antes de su muerte. Usted es actualmente el artista increíble, legendario, que desde el fondo legendario, desde el fondo de Oceanía envía sus obras definitivas, las de un gran hombre por decirlo de alguna manera, desaparecido del mundo. Sus enemigos (y tiene una buena cantidad de ellos, como todos aquellos que molestan a los mediocres) no dicen nada, no se atreven a combatirlo, ni lo piensan: ¡usted está tan lejos! Por consiguiente, no debe arrebatarles el hueso que tienen entre los dientes. En resumen, usted goza de la inmunidad de los grandes difuntos, ha pasado a la historia del arte”.

Café en Arlés, 1888, óleo sobre lienzo, 72 x 92 cm, Museo Pushkin de
Bellas Artes , Moscú.

En 1903, Ambroise Vollard exponía en su galería parisina cerca de cien pinturas y dibujos de Gauguin, algunas enviadas por el artista, y otras compradas por los marchantes y coleccionistas. En 1906, París organizó una exposición retrospectiva de Gauguin en el Salón de Otoño, de reciente creación; se expusieron 227 obras (sin contar aquellas que no estaban numeradas): pinturas, dibujos, cerámicas y maderas esculpidas. El crítico belga Octave Maus escribió: “Y finalmente, aquí está Paul Gauguin bajo todos los aspectos de su talento viril y sabio, Paul Gauguin gran colorista, gran dibujante, gran decorador, pintor multiforme y siempre seguro de sí mismo”.

Niños luchando, 1888, óleo sobre lienzo, 93 x 73 cm, Colección particular, Lausanne.

Cuando se trata del reconocimiento o del no reconocimiento de las concepciones artísticas de Gauguin y de su lugar en el arte, las variadas apreciaciones de los expertos de diferentes generaciones, con convicciones y gustos estéticos diversos, son totalmente legítimas. Algunos ven en Gauguin un destructor del realismo que se enfrenta violentamente con la tradición y que se abrió un camino para llegar a un “arte libre” que engloba las corrientes más diversas: fauvismo, impresionismo, surrealismo y abstracción pura. Otros consideran a Gauguin como el continuador de la tradición artística europea. Numerosos contemporáneos juzgaban con suspicacia y desconfianza su marcha de Europa, partiendo de la convicción de que un verdadero maestro puede y debe crear en su país natal y no debe ir a buscar la inspiración en viajes al fin del mundo, ni a una cultura diferente de la suya.

Para obtener una mejor visión de la vida y del trabajo de Gauguin, continúe esta emocionante aventura haciendo clic sobre “en español”: GauguinGrand PalaisAmazon Spain , iTunes , GoogleAmazon Mexico , Amazon UKAmazon US , Amazon Australia , Amazon Italy , Amazon Japan , Amazon China , Amazon India   , Amazon France , Amazon Canada , Scribd , Overdrive , Kobo  , Douban , Dangdang

Exhibition: Myths and limits

Date: March 4, 2017 to January 7, 2018

Venue: Musée romain de Lausanne Vidy

The cult of the self, contempt for nature and limitless ambition: modern man inclines towards excess. In ancient times this was termed hubris and it was the worst of crimes. Having overstepped their rights as human beings, usurped the rights of the gods and threatened the balance of the universe, Daedalus, Midas and others were the target of divine anger. This is a useful reminder at a time when Homo sapiens is increasingly playing the role of god…

For more information please visit https://test.lausanne-musees.ch/en_GB/exhibitions/trop-c-est-trop-mythes-et-limites